"A flower of a crop depends on its weight."
With this sentence
Sayings from generation to generation among Chinese Farmers
Total grain output in China
About 200000000000 Jin from the beginning of the founding of new China
To today's 13158 billion jin
The main contradiction of agriculture has changed from total shortage to structural contradiction. Agricultural development has shifted from increasing production direction to upgrading quality.
The growth of most crops is inseparable from the land. "There are 92 natural elements in the soil, of which 17 essential elements are needed for plant growth: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, chlorine, boron and nickel. "Chen Neng Chang, a member of the expert steering group of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas, often tells readers about science.
For a long time, in the vast majority of farmers' knowledge stock of fertilizers, three kinds of chemical fertilizers, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, occupy an absolutely important position. Relying on these three fertilizers, the farmers' crops can solve the problem of survival from "production" to "high yield".
With the improvement of modern YG电竞
production level, China's YG电竞
development needs to be changed from "increasing production" to "upgrading quality", and the demand for YG电竞
products has also changed from "high yield" to "high quality". The importance of calcium, magnesium, sulphur, iron and zinc to improve the quality of YG电竞
products has become increasingly prominent.
Long term "fierce fill" nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium soil structure degradation
"How much water a bucket can hold depends on its shortest wooden plank. The barrel theory known to people is also suitable for crop growth. The more than 10 essential elements of the soil are different in quantity, but the loss of any element will affect the quality of YG电竞
products. Lin Chaowen, deputy director of the Institute of soil and fertilizer, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, told reporters.
"Nitrogen leaves, phosphorus long fruit, potash fertilizer does not grow firewood." It can be seen from this familiar peasant proverb that many of the three elements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have been known very long ago.
A large amount of nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizer are applied to the soil every year and every season, and the systematic supply of trace element nutrients is often neglected. The research shows that this traditional fertilization method leads to imbalance of nutrient elements in the soil.
Data show that China has raised 22% of the world's population with less than 10% of the world's cultivated land. However, China's chemical fertilizer consumption exceeds 1/3 of the world's total. According to the Soil Research Report of the Provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the soil and regional distribution data of the lack of trace elements in China show that more than 50% of the soil lacks trace elements, which leads to the increase of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, which can not increase crop production, but also lead to crop yield reduction and quality reduction of YG电竞
"Long-term application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers leads to soil degradation and poor aggregate structure." Lin Chaowen told reporters. It has been reported that Zhangqiu, Shouguang and other places due to long-term application of fertilizer lead to soil compaction and soil fertility decline, resulting in reduced crop yields and quality decline.
Appropriate supplement of medium and trace elements 42
In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to trace elements, especially in improving the quality of YG电竞
products. "Since 80s and 90s of last century, China has popularized plant soil nutrition, especially for large crops such as rice, maize and rape, and promoted the application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium at the same time. Such as rice and maize zinc supplementation, prevent plant short sitting, rape boron supplementation, prevent flowering without result. Lin Chaowen told reporters.
Lin Chaowen seems that compared to corn, rape, rice and other food crops, fruit and other economic crops need to improve product quality and market competitiveness, the addition of trace elements has been pressing.
Wang Zhihui, a professor at Sichuan Agricultural Uniersity, told reporters that the lack of calcium, sulfur, boron, zinc, magnesium and other elements in citrus planting soil in our province is more prominent. "Deficiency of calcium and sulfur causes yellowing. Boron deficiency causes leaf swelling, poor pollination and poor fruit setting. Zinc deficiency causes lobular disease." Although the amount of medium and trace elements is small, it has 42 effects.
Soil iron deficiency leads to yellowing of yam leaves. Miao Ming army for map
Miao Mingjun, an Associate Research Fellow of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, observed that the lack of trace elements in vegetables grown in many provinces of our province is more common. In Ya'an, the soil of yam cultivation lacks the iron and manganese elements needed for yam. In Neijiang, Jiajiang and other places, there is a lack of iron elements in the local ginger growing soil.
In Wang Zhihui's view, most farmers grow citrus or are familiar with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Long term application of N, P and K fertilizer not only causes antagonism of elements in soil, but also affects the absorption of trace elements. It will also lead to the decline of soil fertility, and a small amount of trace elements, such as iron elements, which are originally contained in the soil, will become invalid. In addition, the annual picking will take away some trace elements. If not replenish in time, it will lead to the shortage of trace elements.
At present, the most important task is to change farmers' fixed views on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for a long time. Wang Zhihui seems to think that this is a long-term process. This is from Peng Yong, a fertilizer distributor in Meishan. In recent years, a large number of late ripening citrus have been developed in Dongpo District and other places in Meishan. This is the irreplaceable role of Peng Yong in Citrus Growers' attention in technical learning. He began to work as a dealer when he sniffed business opportunities. However, when Peng Yong first recommended such fertilizers, he encountered unexpected obstacles.
Traditional nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers occupy absolute weight in most households. With the application of trace element fertilizers in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, many growers are more difficult to accept. Peng Yong said that when recommending his own product, he persuaded growers to apply contrast in their own orchards. "For example, there are 100 trees in a family, so I let him first apply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in the 10 trees." Peng Yong said, "from 2018 to 2019, I sold only 10 tons of fertilizer. And this year, it has sold 15 tons.
Increasing application of organic fertilizer will bring second spring
During the interview, reporters found that many experts also mentioned the importance of organic fertilizer to supplement and improve soil fertility.
"Farmers will cultivate land, and they will also maintain land". In Wang Zhihui's view, the biggest bottleneck of soil improvement in Sichuan lies in the lack of organic matter. "The average content of soil organic matter in Sichuan is below 1.5%, and the standard is above 2%. Using organic fertilizer instead of some chemical fertilizers can improve soil structure and improve soil fertility. Two, it can solve the problem of pollutant discharge in livestock and poultry breeding. Three, organic fertilizer can change pH value of soil, transform the trace elements that can not be absorbed by crops into effective state, help crops absorb and solve the problem of supplement of trace elements.
Taking citrus planting as an example, Wang Zhihui thought that farmers should form a long-term awareness of organic fertilizer in order to supplement trace elements. Due to the longer time required for organic fertilizer to produce, Wang Zhihui suggested that we need to supplement the medium and trace element fertilizers in stages to solve the needs of seasonal crops.
Miao Ming Jun has been engaged in vegetable cultivation for a long time. In his view, the vegetable industry as a hundred billion industry in Sichuan has also reached the time of improving quality and increasing efficiency. However, most growers rely too much on fertilizer and neglect the application of organic fertilizer, resulting in the decrease of soil organic matter content and the shortage of trace elements. This is one of the problems to be solved in improving the quality and efficiency of vegetable industry.
Heartburn of Chinese Cabbage
"In 2018, the Alpine vegetable research team of the Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences found that heartburn of cabbage was prevalent in the cabbage producing areas of Lixian County, the town of Po tou, gouergou and Mi Ya Luo. After testing, it was found that the main soil of Chinese cabbage was sandy loam and lack of calcium, which was the main reason for heartburn of Chinese cabbage. Miao Mingjun told reporters, "local growers generally apply chemical fertilizers. In this case, we and the local YG电竞
and rural Bureau encourage the growers to increase commercial organic and microbial organic fertilizers, reduce chemical fertilizers, supplement microelement fertilizers, improve soil structure, improve fertilizer utilization, and gradually fertilize soil fertility."
In fact, promoting organic fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer and developing green agriculture has become the direction of YG电竞
development in China. In 2015, in order to vigorously promote fertilizer reduction and efficiency, pesticide reduction and control, and explore the road of modern YG电竞
development with high output efficiency, product safety, resource saving and environmental friendliness, the Ministry of agriculture and rural development (Ministry of Agriculture) in 2015 formulated the action plan for zero growth of chemical fertilizer consumption by 2020. The plan mentioned that the total nutrient content of organic fertilizer resources in China is about 7000. More than ten million tons, the actual utilization is less than 40%.
In addition, fertilization structure is unbalanced. Heavy chemical fertilizer, light organic fertilizer, heavy element fertilizer, light and medium trace element fertilizer, heavy nitrogen fertilizer, light phosphorus potassium fertilizer "three heavy three light" problem is outstanding. In addition, the plan put forward that by 2020, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements and other nutrient structure will be reasonable, and the organic fertilizer resources will be used rationally. The technology coverage rate of soil testing and formula fertilization reached over 90%, the rate of returning nutrients to livestock and poultry manure reached 60%, increased by 10 percentage points, and the rate of returning crop straw to nutrients reached 60% and increased 25 percentage points.
Source: Sichuan rural daily